• Experimental and theoretical study of the elementary processes of plastic deformation and fracture of a wide class of materials in the range of low (1.4-300 K) and ultralow (0.4-1.4 K) temperatures. Thermally activated and quantum plasticity.
• Study of the influence of the superconducting transition on plasticity, elastic and inelastic properties of metals and alloys.
• Investigation of low-temperature jump-like deformation of metals and alloys.
• Acoustic spectroscopy of elementary processes of inelastic deformation of metals and alloys with complex structure and morphology.
• Establishment of mechanisms of plasticity and fracture of metal glasses, nanostructured materials, nanocomposites, high-entropy alloys.
• Study of the physical and mechanical properties of fullerites and carbon composites based on epoxy resin.
The department was founded in 1961 by Prof. V.I. Startsev with active support of the director of the institute Prof. B.I. Verkin for the study of the dislocation mechanisms of low-temperature plastic deformation of solids, the study of the properties of individual dislocations, and the establishment of the relationship of low-temperature mechanical properties of solids with structural defects.
From the establishment in 1984, the department was headed by Prof. V.I. Startsev, in 1984 - 2004 the department was led by Prof. V.D. Natsik, and since 2004 the department is headed by Dr.Sci. P.P. Pal-Val.
The physical ideology of experimental and theoretical study of the laws and mechanisms of plasticity, fracture and internal friction of a variety of materials was based on the concept that the inelastic deformation of crystals under condition of low and ultralow temperatures is complicated by the effect on the dislocation motion of specific low-temperature phenomena: the superconducting transition in metals, lowering the intensity of thermal fluctuations and the increasing role of quantum effects (zero oscillations, quantum tunneling) in local rearrangements in the lattice structure, low-temperature anomalies of the kinetic properties of quasiparticles, etc. The study of these problems began with the introducing of a number of modern experimental low-temperature facilities and attachments to standard instruments, as well as with the development of highly sensitive methods for measuring the mechanical characteristics of materials. In the early years, efforts were focused on studying the mechanical characteristics of perfect single crystal samples. Thereafter , a number of new materials with a complicated atomic structure and unique physicomechanical properties, such as metal glasses, nanostructured materials, high temperature metal oxide superconductors (HTSC), fullerites, high entropy alloys, etc., appears at the top of interests of the scientists working in the fundamental physics of plasticity and strength. For a comprehensive physical interpretation of the experimental results, it became necessary to develop new microscopic models of plastic flow within the framework of dislocation concept.
A collection of materials “Physics and Lyrics of Real Crystals” has been prepared in the Real Crystals Physics (RCP) Department of the LTPE of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in two volumes and was devoted to the history of the department since its foundation. The collection contains memories of the first head of the department, Honored Worker of Science and Technology of the Ukrainian SSR, Prof. V.I. Startsev, the chronicle of the RCP Department , information about conferences and winter schools organized in past years by the department, and other materials. The collection is illustrated with a large number of unique photos.
|Pal-Val Pavel Pavlovich, Dr. Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Head of Department|
|Natsik Vasilij Dmitrievich, Dr. Sc. (Phys.-Math.) Prof., Chief Researcher|
|Fomenko Larysa Stepanovna, Dr. Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Leading Researcher|
|Braude Irina Semenovna, Cand. Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Senior Researcher|
|Isaev Nicolai Vasilyevich, Cand. Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Senior Researcher|
|Lubenets Serzh Viktorovich, Cand. Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Senior Researcher|
|Moskalenko Vladyslav Andriyovych, Cand. Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Senior Researcher|
|Shumilin Sergii Eduardovich, Cand. Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Senior Researcher|
|Smirnov Sergey Nikolaevich, Cand. Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Senior Researcher|
|Tabachnikova Elena Dmitrievna, Cand. Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Senior Researcher|
|Hryhorova Tetiana Viktorivna, Cand. Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Research Associate|
|Semerenko Yuri Aleksandrovich, Cand. Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Research Associate|
|Smirnov Alexander Removich, Cand. Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Research Associate|
|Geidarov Vusal, Junior Researcher|
|Pohribnaya Yulia Mikhailovna, Junior Researcher|
|Rusakova Hanna Viktorivna,Cand. Sc.(Phys.-Math.), Junior Researcher|
|Shapovalov Yuriy , Junior Researcher|
|Smolianets Ruslan Volodymyrovych, Junior Researcher|
|Vatazhuk Olena Mykolaivna, Cand. Sc.(Phys.-Math.), Junior Researcher|
|Zabrodin Pavel Andreevych, Cand. Sc.(Phys.-Math.), Junior Researcher|
|Shlyakhov Valeriy Volodymyrovich, 1 Category Technician|
Leading researchers and veterans of the Real Crystals Physics Department in the seminar room (2006). Are sitting (from left to right): P.P. Pal-Val, L.V. Skibina, I.S. Braude, V.S. Fomenko, L.N. Pal-Val, E.D. Tabachnikova, T.V. Grigorova, are standing: V.P. Soldatov, A.R. Smirnov, V.D. Natsik, N.V. Isaev, S.N. Smirnov, A.V. Podolsky, V.V. Pustovalov, V.Z. Bengus, Yu.G. Kazarov, V.V. Shlyakhov, V.A. Moskalenko, S.V. Lubenets, S.E. Shumilin.
50th anniversary of the Real Crystals Physics Department (2011). 1st row 1: Y. Kazarov, V. Pustovalov, L. Fomenko, Y. Semerenko, P. Zabrodin, G. Kirichenko; 2nd row: E. Vatazhuk, E. Tabachnikova, V. Soldatov, I. Braude, V. Moskalenko, L. Skibina, A. Rusakova, A. Smirnov; 3rd row: V. Bengus, T. Grigorova, V. Fomenko, A. Podolsky, L. Pal-Val, S. Shumilin, S. Smirnov, R. Smolyanets, P. Pal-Val, V. Natsik, N. Isaev.
• Test machines designed to evaluate the mechanical properties of materials by means of active plastic deformation and creep down to temperatures of 0.45 K with a liquid 3He cryostat with adsorption pumping (in terms of their parameters, the machines have no analogues in the world).
• Test machines for mechanical loading materials by means of active deformation and creep in the temperature range of 1.4 - 600 K. All machines are equipped with highly sensitive sensors and interface modules providing data transfer to personal computers.
• Low-temperature microhardness meter for measurements in the temperature range of 77 - 400 K.
• Universal computerized equipment for the comprehensive study of acoustic, resistive and magnetic properties of materials in the temperature range 1.4 - 340 K, vibration frequencies 500 Hz - 187.5 MHz and ultrasonic strain amplitudes 1 · 10-9 - 5 · 10-4. All measurements can be carried out in the magnetic field up to 10 kOe.
• Computerized X-ray unit DRON-2 with a low-temperature cell and an improved system for receiving and processing information in the temperature range 77 - 600 K.
• Electron microscope EM-200.
• Optical metal microscopes MIM-7, MIM-8.
• Laboratory cryostat mill.
• To perform tasks that require a significant amount of mathematical calculations (computer simulation), personal computers and computing resources of the GRID-cluster of the LTPE of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine are used.
• The influence of the superconducting (NS) transition on plastic flow and amplitude-dependent internal friction (IF) of metals has been discovered. It is shown that these effects are associated with a change in the electronic drag of dislocations. A theory of electron drag of dislocations has been developed.
• In the temperature range of 4.2–30 K, anomalies in the temperature dependences of the yield stress and nonlinear internal friction were found. It is shown that these anomalies are caused by inertial effects due to the transition of dislocations to the underdamped state.
• At temperatures T < 20 K, a depression of the effect of the temperature on the plasticity of crystals due to the quantum overcoming of the impurity centers and the Peierls relief was observed. A theoretical description of the quantum plasticity of crystals is proposed.
• In indium-lead alloys,the low-temperature superelasticity effect due to pseudo- twinning was discovered and studied in detail.
• Main peculiarities of the low-temperature jump-like deformation in metals were established and the effect of the N-S transition on that was established.
• Low-temperature anomalies of the microhardness of fullerite C60 were detected and their connection to the orientational relaxation of C60 molecules was established. A theory of orientational relaxation and its effects on the thermodynamic, acoustic, and plastic properties of fullerite C60 has been developed.
• A connection was established between the peaks of internal friction in Nb and CsI in the range of liquid helium temperatures and the motion of dislocation kinks in the Peierls relief of 2nd order . An anomalous decrease in the mobility of kinks with a decrease in the electron viscosity at the N-S transition was observed for the first time in Nb.
• Local adiabatic warming up reaching the melting point temperatures was observed at the surface of low-temperature shear fracture of metallic glasses, (including temperatures below 1 K).
• Anomalies of mechanical properties of metallic glasses of stoichiometric compositions were detected and their connection to the atomic structure of the intercluster boundaries was established. A correlation between the mechanical properties and the structure of the intercluster boundaries with variations in the composition of the glasses was found.
• An original technology for manufacturing bulk nanocrystalline metals (Ti, Zr and Hf) by the cryomechanical method based on the results of the study of the mechanical twinning of hcp metals at low temperatures is proposed.
• For the first time, an existence of a “glass-like phase” in Zr and Ti nanostructured metals obtained by low-temperature severe plastic deformation (SPD) was experimentally detected by the acoustic spectroscopy methods.
• A giant (~ 50%) change in the Young's modulus of the nanostructured copper samples after SPD and subsequent annealing was revealed and it was established that the effect is caused by significant transformations in the crystallographic texture of the samples.
• State Prize of Ukraine in the field of science and technology: S.V. Lubenets (in the team of co-authors) for the series of scientific papers "Quantum effects and structural self-organization in new multifunctional nanomaterials" (2011).
• K.D. Sinelnikov scholarship for the leading scientists of Ukraine in the field of physics and astronomy: V.D. Natsik (2011), V.V. Pustovalov (2012).
• Scholarship of the NAS of Ukraine for young scientists: Semerenko Yu.A. (2005).
• Honorary Badge of the NAS of Ukraine "For the preparation of a scientific shift": V.D. Natsik (2009).
• Honorary Badge of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine "For professional achievements": V.V. Pustovalov (2009).
• Diploma of the Presidium of the NAS of Ukraine and the Central Committee of the Trade Union of Workers of the NAS of Ukraine: V.Z. Bengus, V.A. Moskalenko (2009), O.M. Vatazhuk (2018).
• Diploma of the Presidium of the NAS of Ukraine "In honor of the 100th anniversary of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine": P.P. Pal-Val, V.A. Moskalenko, O.M. Vatazhuk (2018).
• Diploma of Kharkov Regional State Administration: V.D. Natsik (2009), V.P. Soldatov, V.Z. Bengus, P.P. Pal-Val (2010).
• Award "Intellect Kharkiv" them. prof. IN AND. Startsev International Charity Fund O. Feldman: V.Z. Bengus, V.P. Soldatov (2005), V.D. Natsik (2006), S.V. Lubenets (2007), I.S. Braude (2008), Yu.G. Kazarov (2009).
• Certificate of Honor of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine "On the occasion of the 80th anniversary of the foundation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine": V.D. Natsik (1998).
• Memorial Award of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine "In honor of the 100th anniversary of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine": V.D. Natsik (2018).
• Каганов М.И., Кравченко В.Я., Нацик В.Д. Электронное торможение дислокаций в кристаллах // Успехи физических наук. - 111(12). - 655-682. - 1973
• Старцев В.И, Ильичев В.Я, Пустовалов В.В. Пластичность и прочность металлов и сплавов при низких температурах. - М: Металлургия. - 1975.
• Startsev V.I. Dislocations and strength of metals at very low temperatures // Dislocations in Solids, V. 6. - Amsterdam-New York-Oxford: North-Holland. - 1983.
• Lubenets S.V., Startsev V.I., and Fomenko L.S. Dynamics of twinning in metals and alloys (review) // Phys. Stat. Sol. (a), 1985, V. 92, No. 1, P. 11-55.
• Lubenets S.V., Natsik V.D., and Fomenko L.S. Elastic moduli and low temperature anomalies of acoustic properties of metal oxide high-temperature superconductors (review) // Low Temperature Physics. – 1995. -V. 21. – P. 367 – 385.
• Пустовалов В. В. Влияние сверхпроводящего перехода на низкотемпературную скачкообразную деформацию металлов и сплавов (Обзор). ФНТ. - 26, № 6. - 515-535. - 2000.
• Lubenets S.V., Natsik V.D., and Fomenko L.S. Plasticity and strength of metal oxide high-temperature superconductors (review) // Low Temperature Physics, 2004, V. 30, P. 345-376.
• Пустовалов В.В. Скачкообразная деформация металлов и сплавов при низких температурах (Обзор). ФНТ.– 34, № 9. – 871-913. – 2008.
• Pustovalov V. Plasticity of metals and alloys. - New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. - 2009. - 131 p.
• Пустовалов В.В., Фоменко В.С. Пластическая деформация кристаллов при низких температурах. - Київ: Наукова думка. - 2011. - 354 с.
• Головин С.А., Паль-Валь П.П., Мозговой А.В. Современные проблемы механической спектроскопии. - Успехи физ. мет. - 14. - 259–273. - 2013.
• Москаленко В.А. Объемный нанокристаллический титан, полученный криомеханической фрагментацией зерна // В кн.: Наноразмерные системы: строение, свойства, технологии. Исследования в Украине / Коллективная монография под ред. А.Г. Наумовца. – К.: ВД «Академперіодика» НАН України. – 2014.
• Lubenets S.V., Fomenko L.S., Natsik V.D., and Rusakova A.V. Low-temperature mechanical properties of fullerites: structure, elasticity, plasticity, strength (review) // Low Temperature Physics, 2019, Vol. 45, No. 1, P. 1-38